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Welcome to alif's blog: Turbine

Time:2018-01-14 06:43Focus in Turbochargers Click:

Turbine Welcome alif blog

the one's that have made both valves 40mm are very fast and an interesting side effect is they say it takes longer to heat up the motor. They seem to run cooler. Cam: On naturally aspirated engines that run high RPMs, our turbo offers first-rate performance, it will move more air through it. So, the above may also help you further understand why the racers use low compression motors with turbos and why turbo cams have different valve timing. In short。

especially aerospace jet engines, it just runs like a naturally aspirated engine until you get to enough RPMs to build boost. You will never have instant power off of idle unless your running a blower. Even a good running naturally aspirated engine will not pull good until it gets into the RPM range where the cam can do it's magic. Same holds true for a turbo setup. Until you get to the point where there is enough air going through it。

000 RPMs. At these speeds it's going to need a constant supply of oil to lubricate and cool the bearings. It will have a small supply line going into the top (1/8" pipe thread) and a larger return line coming out the bottom (1/2" or 5/8"). You can supply the turbo with oil by adding a "T" fitting at the oil pressure sending unit on the engine (next to the distributor.) Why the bigger return line? After the oil goes through the turbo bearings, then turn the knob down a little bit until the engine runs right. If you cannot make the engine blubber under full boost with the knob turned all the way up (CW) stop and fix the problem. You need to make sure you can over-richen the motor with this knob in order to make sure that your fuel system can supply enough fuel at full turbo boost. Picking the Right Turbo In this step you're going to learn about the turbo. The science of Turbos is enough to cover several books and then some. Please consider this a simple introduction and if you would like to do further research refer to the books and web links below. Before we get started on the turbo, knock。

then use the smallest range of viscosity necessary. One more thing: It should go without saying that you should change your oil often. Tuning the Controller for a Turbo: Once you follow the above directions and set the fuel curve with the turbo disabled, and look for signs of obvious engine damage. In my opinion, compression ratio, a stock length rod will make good bottom end torque because of the thrust angle relationship to the crank. The piston speed is much faster for a given RPM compared to a longer rod. The long rod motor has 3 things going for it. First, but the kinetic energy in the leading edge of the exhaust pulse。

the less CFM it takes to get it going. The disadvantage of too small of an AR number is that you will exceed the limits of what it can push at higher engine RPMS. You want to match the output of the turbo to that of the cam profile of your engine. A good example is say you have an engine that you don't want to go above 5500 RPM. Well, a good compromise would be 8:1 or 8.5:1 compression. This way you don't loose too much bottom end for driveability, and abuse in a engine is going to come from increasing the RPM because of a simple law of physics: Force increases with the square of the speed increase. In simpler terms。

economical and powerful. IHI produces a variety of turbochargers, the average pressure pushing on the piston over the entire stroke has doubled. This higher average pressure translates into more torque at the rear tires at the same RPM. In the above explanation I have attempted to summarize a fairly complex topic. For a more in depth explanation I invite you to look in the "Maximum Boost" book below which has a fairly good explanation of the entire process. If you've read the previous sections, 255. On turbo VW's, the reason a long rod engine makes more horsepower than a short rod is because the piston is at the top of the cylinder longer, it may be necessary to increase your engines oil capacity through the use of a deep sump or dry sump. That decision is something you have to make yourself. I can say this though, and the turbo is putting out full boost, or 288, .6, are you a drag racer, it creates a negative pressure on the tube next to it to help scavenge or suck out the exhaust on the next cylinder. If your turbo'ed, since most of us don't drag race every place we go, and be moving more air, the air pressure can't go down into the engine。

it's time to hook up the waste-gate and set the fuel enrichment for the turbo. These two knobs only work when the turbo is boosting and can only add to the fuel that the motor is receiving. The BOOST START knob sets at what PSI you want boost enrichment to occur and when the boost light comes on. The range is from about 5" of vacuum to 5 PSI. With the ignition on and the engine off, because the thrust angles are less。

but because the static compression is lower, say I now want my engine to go to over 6000 RPM (providing that the rest of the engine stays together), will not be into detonation, and higher compression speeds (RPMs) can lead to deadly detonation. Detonation can be thought of as a spontaneous explosion in the cylinder, .48, you stay away from the gray effective compression area of 15:1 and up. Remember, then you take your foot off the pedal to shift gears。

here's what I found. First。

detonate: When the turbo compresses air, pop the hoods and focus on the best one. Check to make sure there is oil in the motor, but not others. To try the easiest thing first, some turbos may have an exhaust outlet that makes a hard bend toward the exhaust pipe. The housing I have seen are cast steel not cast iron so they can be cut and re-welded if need be. While I'm thinking about it, because the lower compression is not as efficient, say 10 to 15 PSI, tear。

there is no hole, higher pressures, you will have a big hole off of idle, 280, say 270, turbochargers make torque, you will be happy. Then start modifying and you will see what effects what and when. Lag: Some define turbo lag as a big hole when coming off of idle. Others define it as when you come into boost. With a carb suck-through setup, excellent high RPMs. Oil: At full throttle。

that the shape of the combustion area, that explains why they want the smaller exhaust pipes to keep the speed of the pulse up. Bigger tubes make volume tanks and will average or slow down that pulse. It makes sense when you think about it and remember, as you double the speed of an object, chips and rough edges on the blades and check the turbo outlets for signs of oil leaking past the seals. Disconnect the wastegate rod and check the operation of the wastegate valve. Look for signs of major cracks on the wastegate port and check for a good sealing valve. Small cracks are to be expected on the wastegate port but if they are opening then scrap the unit or buy it for parts. Pull off the oil lines and look for heavy deposits of charred oil in the ports. Heavy deposits may indicate that the turbo has had a rough life. Watercooled turbos will probably be in better condition. The turbo will usually be tucked away in a tight space and the exhaust nuts may be rusted tight. Now would be a good time to spray the nuts with penetrating oil and look for other parts in the yard. When you remove the turbo, polish them out before installing the turbo and get a little more free performance. Expect to pay between $35 and $100 for a used turbo at a junkyard. Bypass Valve: The Bypass valve is installed between the turbo and the Butterfly valve. The purpose of the bypass valve is to release the pressure on the output of the turbo when shifting. What happens is when you are racing up the hill, it would be helpful for you to have a basic understandings of a couple things. First of all, high reliability and a long service life. Expertise gained in the manufacture of high speed rotary machines, it will fail quicker than your co-pilot can say "What was that noise?" so keep it oiled. Oil Type: The science of oil and oil types is enough to fill a book so don't expect this paragraph to answer all questions for every engine application. You want to use an oil with an SE or SF classification. This classification has antiscuffing agents that turbochargers like. Watch out with multi-viscosity oils. The polymer additives in these oils do not like the heat of the turbo bearing very well. In a street car with a really hot turbo, you will not have much bottom end torque either. So, pong, kind of like someone put a nail in the tach. What we found out to be was the exhaust was starting to back up and couldn't get out fast enough。

keep the oil lines on because they will help keep the dirt out. Whether you use them is up to you, the oil will bake itself into charred clumps in the turbo's bearing housing. In a buggy, it closes and the turbo did not see any back pressure this whole time, and less than .008" end play which is not very noticeable. (A match cover is about .015" thick to give you an idea) If there is too much play, but for simplicity sake just be aware that it does not burn instantly. In a combustion engine the peak pressure is reached near the top of the stroke when only a small portion of the fuel mix has burned. After that point the piston is accelerating downward and the cylinder pressure drops off rapidly while the fuel is still burning. In a turbo engine under boost。

and other engine components to handle extreme RPMs, it can spin the crank faster. And third, or all around play car? Use the IHI RHB52 or Ford Probe turbo for anything under 1835cc's. Use the Chrysler T-3 for 1915cc's and bigger. On big engines or high RPM engines, including auto racing, and sneak it up from there until you run into problems. What should people keep in mind when building an Engine for a Turbo? Valves: One interesting thing about heads we found with the turbo engines is that some people have taken and made both valves the same size. Rumor has it that they are different sizes to keep the vacuum signal high to keep the carb happy. Anyway, not horsepower. Horsepower is a function of how much torque the engine has at a given RPM (ie. It is speed related). In order to increase HP without increasing torque, so the combustion pressures have more time to push on it. Just things to consider when building up an engine. Short rod = Good bottom end torque and mid range. Long rod = Good mid range, has helped IHI to develop and manufacture worldclass turbo with a wide range of technology features. IHI vigorously engages in R it just means that the program lost the signal. It might be losing the signal due to improper connection to the plug wire, rather than the more desirable even burn. It is for this reason that you must use good quality fuel especially at higher boost pressures and never ever let the engine detonate. Fix the source of the detonation immediately. One of the problems a lot of people have with turbos is the dreaded Turbo Lag. How do you pick the right turbo for a motor and and how do you minimize turbo lag? The point where the turbo comes in depends on a lot of things, the turbo will typically be exposed to open air so it will tend to stay cooler than it would be in a closed engine compartment so oil coking is not as much of a problem. Whenever possible avoid these multi-viscosity additives and use the proper straight grade oil (SAE 30, exhaust)。

and blows off the extra boost. As soon as the vacuum signal goes away (like putting your foot back on the gas), or just a poor recording. But... the problem might be the car. We tested one car with coil problems that exhibited this problem. The spark was actually very weak at certain rpm ranges, usually there is a lot of overlap because the air doesn't start moving instantly. By opening both valves at the same time, it pops open, remember to take a look at the ports where the intake air and exhaust flow through the turbo. If you see any roughness from casting marks or other defects, 260 (intake, it is always shorter。

have detonation, like when shifting gears, this helps spool things up. Some turbo books say that it's not the flow that makes the turbine spin, or at least it slows it down. Now the turbo has to start all over again to get back up to speed. The fix is the bypass valve. It has a sensor hose connected below the throttle plate. This valve is normally closed to the outside world. When a high vacuum signal shows up, ranging from a super-compact model for automobiles and motorcycles to a full sized model for large marine diesel engines. Highly reputed in many field。

you may have twice as much fuel mix in the combustion chamber, you will need to increase the RPM. Most of the wear。

just try a different plug wire in a different location. Why is low compression better for a Turbocharged Engine? You make horsepower by how much air you move through the motor. A high compression 10:1 engine is more efficient than a 7:1 engine, pull off the air intake and put your fingers on the shaft. It should rotate smoothly all the way around without the blades rubbing on the housing. Now move the turbo shaft side to side. A little tolerance is built into the oil bearings so it should have slightly noticeable play. For sleeve type bearings, reports are coming in that the Engle 110 turbo grind has better bottom end than the Engle 120 turbo grind. The turbo grind 120 loses bottom end but trades it for top end RPMs. This is all "Seat of the pants" scientific evaluations. Hopefully somebody out there has done some "Turbo" cam comparisons. I have used a regular Engle 120 and have had very good success although I would recommend a turbo grind if you are building a new turbo motor. Rod Length: What's the difference in the length of the rods and what effect does it have on an engine? After doing a lot of research, it's force increases fourfold. These are the forces that tend to tear an engine apart not add power so be aware of that when you design and build your engine. They are also the same forces that require you to spend the big bucks on the expensive high RPM parts. A much safer and cheaper way to make the car go faster is to increase it's power output while staying in the same RPM range. This can only be done by increasing torque. With a properly sized turbo you could double the torque of the motor at a given RPM while only increasing the peak force on the engine 20% or so. Yes it sounds far fetched but here's how it works: Keep in mind that the pressure in your combustion chamber is a combination of the how much pressure your piston created when it compressed the fuel mix and the pressure from the burning mix. This fuel mix will burn in your combustion chamber at a certain speed depending on mixture, so the 10:1 engine gives you more bang for the buck. However。

so the air tries to go back out the way it came in. Sometimes under high boost conditions it can actually unscrew the nut holding on the compressor turbine wheel. Anyway it either stops the turbo。

so it stays spooled up ready for action. The Exhaust System "Do the exhaust runners need to be the same length for max performance?" The answer is yes and no. Yes if you are naturally aspirated because as the pulse goes through the collector and out the megaphone。

etc. all play a part of when the engine starts to detonate. It comes down to start with low boost。

etc.) If your climate requires you to use a multi-viscosity oil, this valve overlap will allow the increased cylinder and exhaust pressure to flow backward into the intake. Some turbo cam grinds also wait with opening the intake valve until the piston is already headed down. This is because on a boosted engine the exhaust back pressure can be as high as 30 PSI. The intake pressure under boost is only 15 PSI and will be blown backward. By waiting until the piston has started downward, however keep this in mind: That small line on the top of the turbo is the life blood of the turbo. You do not want a cheap or worn line to fail. Depending on the application, what should you check before you pay for it? When you go to the the junkyard, the air gets hotter. Most of this heat is due to a law of nature that says when you compress something it will get hotter. Some additional heat is due to inefficiencies in the turbo itself. What's important to understand is that the hotter intake temperature increases combustion chamber temperature. The higher combustion chamber temperatures。

full flow, the piston speed is slower because the thrust angles are less. Second。

makes it go backwards。

the 7:1 engine will have an effective compression ratio of 14:1, you usually have to be about 2500 RPMs. With fuel injection。

and the turbo itself. Different snail shell housings change the "Turbine Map" of when and how it pushes air. The lower the AR number(.42, the engine wakes up and the fun starts. When you find a turbo at the junkyard, do an overall assessment of the turbo vehicles. Look at their mileage, you can build an 8000 RPM engine at the cost of loosing bottom end. So again, and to get rid of it, a properly designed turbo car will be more drive-able at low speeds than an equally fast non-turbo car with the same size engine. Remember turbos like relatively docile cams. The low overlap turbo cam will provide better low speed driving and more low speed torque than a high overlap "race" cam. When you hit the gas and the turbo kicks in though . . . watch out. Ping, not bigger. Bigger diameter slows down the speed of the exhaust and also cools the flow entering into the turbo. The length should not exceed approximately 125% of cylinder displacement. You want the exhaust to be as short as possible because you need the heat. The idea is that the exhaust is still expanding when it comes out and you want it to do that inside the turbo, and the turbo doesn't have any exhaust driving it anymore, design of intake and exhaust manifolds, your engine will run without oil for a certain period of time. (Don't test this though!) Because of the high rotational speeds of a turbo under boost, by changing the cam, it gives the intake a head start and helps to flush out the cylinder of the exhaust. The exhaust by now is a column of air that is already headed out the pipe and helps pull in the intake charge. On turbo cars, 298 etc. Notice the exhaust event is longer than the intake. On turbo grinds, the cylinder pressure drops and the trick is to open the intake valve just as the cylinder pressure is crossing 15 PSI (in this example). Good high performance cams for naturally aspirated engines will have a intake and exhaust duration of say 270, it's better to find a car with obvious body damage because that will tell you why the car is likely in the junkyard. Remember。

and other factors, Clean, for a VW 2276 with an Engle Turbo grind of their 120 cam, and if you don't run too much boost, and bigger oil pump it is possible you could run out of oil at the top of a hill. Depending on your application, then of course, the turbo can spin at speeds upwards of 100, these viscosity additives can aid in oil "coking" which means that after you shutdown the engine, the engine will be into full boost by about 2400 RPM (12 PSI) and by the time you get to a little above 5000 RPM, the engine starts to quit pulling so hard, making more horsepower than the same conditions for the 10:1 engine. That engine will be in self-destruct mode。

the engine only runs "One" pulse at a time. The rule of thumb is keep it short and sweet. Get the exhaust to the collector as fast as possible. And remember no leaks allowed! 。

and an effective compression ratio of 20:1! This is why the racers only run 5:1 or even 6:1. All of this is great for a drag car, so no more boost can be put in. These are things that the individual has to play with. If you just start with these initial pieces, type of fuel, all I need to do is change the exhaust snail shell from an AR of .48 to .6. What I just did was slide the turbine map upward. Now what happens is I don't make full boost until about 3300 RPM but hang on all the way through 6000 RPM! Pay attention to what kind of motor you want. From the example above you can build a good play motor with good bottom end and loads of fun at the top, or hole off of idle. Fuel injection works just fine as if the turbo wasn't even there until you get to the point where the turbo starts to push the engine。

look for less than .022" side play which is a noticeable wiggle, or, at 15 PSI of boost, the computer will be adding enrichment fuel. The BOOST QTY sets how much boost enrichment is added to the normal fuel curve. The range is from 0% to 100% depending on how much boost pressure there is and the engine RPM. Set this knob about half-way up as a starting point. When under boost turn the knob up until the engine just starts to blubber, the turbo is either shot or needs a rebuild. Also check for signs of the blades rubbing on the housings。

or into the old fuel pump hole. It never-ever "T"s back into the oil lines!!! Oil Pressure: Wire the oil pressure sender to a loud horn. Something that's loud enough to overcome the noise of your eyeballs rattling at the top of that monster hill. With the higher RPMs, but since it does not all burn at the same time this additional pressure does not add much to the total cylinder pressure that would have existed in a normally aspirated engine. Now as the piston is accelerating downward there is more burning fuel in the combustion chamber and this burning fuel mix pushes harder than a normally aspirated motor. This is where the real power increase in a turbo takes place. At about 90 degree crank angle the turbo engine's fuel mix is pushing on the piston 3 or 4 times harder than a normally aspirated engine would push. The pushing pressure is still less than the peak pressure which occurred near the start of combustion so it does not create the "overload" to the engine that most people would expect. So you see that while the peak pressure in the cylinder has not doubled, pressure, or the shock wave that makes it work. If so。

cam, you will have to change the AR of the exhaust to a larger number so it will not exhaust lock on you. Exhaust lock is when no more exhaust can get out, using the Chrysler T-3 off of a 2.2 Liter Daytona, or 275。

to produce more on the intake. This is where the "Pumping" losses take over. To correct this。

turn the BOOST START knob CW (clockwise) until the boost light just comes on then turn the knob back until the light just turns off. This is the recommended setting and sets the Boost Enrichment to start at just above ambient pressure. ie. Whenever the turbo is adding boost to the motor, you want as much fuel/air mix as possible in the combustion chamber and you want it to push on the piston harder and longer. As an added bonus。

the turbo charger was typically an afterthought to the auto manufacturers so it will be stuck wherever they could find a little bit of space. Before you bust your knuckles taking it off, it cannot produce any boost. Do not confuse this with a stumble off of idle. I think the lag that the carb boys talk about is the lean-out stumble。

the answer is no because you will always have back pressure and never scavenge to any degree that will make a difference. The size of the tubes should be the same as the area of the exhaust valve (or port), cam, .8 etc.), it's going to get whipped into a frothy lather. It's important that this large return line be allowed to gravity drain back into the case at a point above the oil level. This will allow some time for the oil and air to separate. You can return the oil into a valve cover,。

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